Also a procedure to get water-soluble surfactants from lignin by the modification of lignin has been described [40] This consists of alkylating the lignin at its phenolic oxygen sites, sulfonating the alkylated lignin, and oxidizing the so modified lignin to break the molecule into smaller compounds that are water soluble and can act as surfactants. This is the currently selected item.

Mixture of 25 parts by weight of C18–C20 fatty amines, 35 parts of fatty acids and 40 parts of fatty acids and 40 parts of oil. Product of reaction of amines with epichlorohydrin and converted to phosphate. The simplest method of preparation is the Fischer method, in which an alcohol and an acid are reacted in an acidic medium.The reaction exists in an equilibrium condition and does not go to completion unless a product is removed as fast as it forms. Corrosion inhibitor compositions useful for oil and gas well applications are prepared by reacting 2,5-dimethylpyridine or 2,4,6-collidine with formaldehyde or acetone and an amine such as 1-dodecanamine [76, 77].

Example 1. certain chlorite products that contain Cl2 or use of chlorine as activator for formation of chlorine dioxide gas) are likely to give rise to hazardous AOX. 3.5.

Additionally, Hosseini et al.

The major observation is an outburst of odorless and colorless gas and nitrogen is given off.
Corrosion inhibitor compositions useful for oil and gas well applications are prepared by reacting 2,5-dimethylpyridine or 2,4,6-collidine with formaldehyde or acetone and an amine such as 1-dodecanamine [76, 77].A hydrocarbon soluble corrosion inhibitor is obtained by the acid-catalyzed oligomerization of an alkylaniline and formaldehyde [78]. The propan 1 ol will be a single product among many that involve propan 2 ol, 1 chloro propane, propene and others.

In a similar study, preconditioning a chalcopyrite/pyrrhotite mixed ore with A. ferrooxidans before the addition of a xanthate collector allowed the flotation of chalcopyrite and depression of pyrrhotite (Pecina-Treviño et al., 2012). (1996) had done previously. Asim Kumar Roy Choudhury, in Principles of Textile Finishing, 2017. Nitrogen compounds such as fatty amines, amides, imadazolines and quaternary ammonium salts can function as antistats. Mixture of polyamides of fatty acids with acetylenic derivatives along with cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and cyclohexamine. Mixture of 2-heptyl-2-imidazoline, formaldehyde and diethyl phosphite to give imidazoline phosphite. Amino acids react with each other in a typical acid-base neutralization reaction to form a salt. (2004a,b) who showed that pyrite was rendered more hydrophilic than chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite with the addition of A. ferrooxidans cells following xanthate preconditioning. Reaction with nitrous acid. Let’s take 1-aminopropane for example. Emissions of trivalent chromium in the waste water can be minimised but cannot be avoided, unless alternative dyestuffs are applied. The reaction is shown schematically in Figure 6.5.

Thiol ester of type XC(:O)m RC(:O)x where R is C2–C8 alkyl, m = o or C28–C36 alkyl, m = o or 1, x = C1–5 dithiol.

Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The water dispersibility can be controlled by varying the type and amount of the additional aromatic compound, such as ethoxylated alkyl phenol, included in the oligomerization reaction mixture [79]. However, only hypochlorite and elemental-chlorine-containing compounds (e.g.

In the case of tallow amine, a temperature of about 60-70 ∘C is adequate.

The use of bromate, iodate and chlorite as oxidising agents in vat and sulphur dyeing processes and the use of hypochlorite as stripping agent for decolouring faulty goods or for cleaning dyeing machines may produce AOX emissions. Mixture of polyamides of fatty acids with acetylenic derivatives.

Other substances that may be encountered in the dyeing auxiliaries and that may give rise to water pollution are as follows: Fatty amine ethoxylates (levelling agent), Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEO) (levelling agent), Quaternary ammonium compounds (retarders for cationic dyes), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (levelling agent for vat, sulphur and direct dyes), Cyanamide-ammonia salt condensation products (auxiliaries for fastness improvement). Product from condensation of unsaturated C12–C24 fatty acids with maleic anhydride mixed with triethanolamine. CH3CH2CH2NH2 + HNO2 -> CH3CH2CH2OH + H2O + N2. A fourth issue is carriers. 500 ppm is sufficient. The org layer was dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated to provide the product as a brown solid. This occurs by nucleophilic attack of the amine on the nitrite reprotonating by the surrounding solvent and double elimination of water. Synthesized by the condensation of mixtures of fatty acids or pure fatty acids or naphthenic acid or stearic or lauric acid with diethylenetriamine or dipropylenetriamine. As both the amine and carboxylic acid groups of amino acids can react to form amide bonds, one amino acid molecule can react with another and become joined through an amide linkage.

Reaction of lignin with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl amine.

Bioleaching microorganisms had been successfully used to bioleach the base metals from sulfide ores, but pyrite and other sulfide minerals collect in the tailings dams leading to acid mine drainage. What occurred is the formation of an ion by reaction with an acid present. Quaternary ammonium antistats.

Regarding the environmental concerns associated with the chemicals and auxiliaries used in dyeing processes it is worth mentioning a few key issues. In Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids (Second Edition), 2015. Preparation of amides using DCC.

However, under proper conditions, the amines can be dissolved in water which contains a surfactant such as a petroleum sulfonate or an alkyl-aryl sulfonate together with the lignin. Nitrous acid is a weak acid and we get the following chemical reaction. Reaction product of dicyclohexylamine, N-isopropylaniline and morpholine with spindle oil at 75°C for 160 min. Relevant vinyl monomers are shown in Figure 6.4.

The lignin amines have various useful properties. When trimethyl amine is substituted with fatty amine, the final product of lignin with quaternary ammonium will be a better surfactant than the lignosulfonate, see Fig. A second issue is that of oxidising agents. All these auxiliaries are water-soluble, poorly biodegradable and can pass untransformed or only partially degraded through waste water treatment systems. Yang et al. Protective films formed by insoluble compounds such as carbamide, thiocarbamide, tributylamine, and tetrabutyl ammonium sulfate may inhibit corrosion. The reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 4 h. Upon completion EtOAc (100 mL) was added. The first is a reaction of epoxy chloropropane with trimethyl ammonium chloride under alkali conditions to form an intermediate, which then reacts with lignosulfonate to obtain lignin with quaternary ammonium, which is a surfactant. They are used in formate solutions, so far as the high pH environment does not hydrolyze the amido group. The route to graft quaternary ammonium to lignin is divided into two steps.

Rea, ... W.J. Figure 2.3. Johannes Karl Fink, in Reactive Polymers Fundamentals and Applications (Second Edition), 2013. The product provides protection against ferrous corrosion in severe environments. Nitrous acid is a monobasic weak acid which is known only in solution in the form of nitrite salts used in making diazides from amines. The reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 2 h, after which time it was washed with sat aq NaHCO3 (5 mL) then 10% aq citric acid (5 mL). Carboxylic acid reactions overview. This was reinforced by Chandraprabha et al. Amide of H2N–(R1–NH)n R2 (R1 = C2–C6 alkenes, R2 is H or OH substituted hydrocarbon group) and aliphatic carboxylic acid mixed with product of neutralization of C2–C12 dicarboxylic acid with hydroxyamines. N,N-Dimethyl-p-toluidine, when subsequently applied to the joined parts, causes even relatively large amounts of adhesive to harden within seconds. Sastri, in Underground Pipeline Corrosion, 2014.

Amines, diamines, imidazolines, and pyrimidines and salts of these amines are combined with fatty and naphthenic acids and sulfonates.

The carriers that remain on the fibre after dyeing and washing are partially volatilised during drying and fixing operations and can give rise to air emissions. [600 mg, 65%], [Patent Reference: WO2016011390, page 126, (20.2 MB)], To a solution of the amine (2.0 g, 12.1 mmol) in DCM (50 mL) was added TEA (5.0 mL, 36.3 mmol) and the acid chloride (1.5 mL, 12.1 mmol). Govender and Gericke (2011) found that the EPS collected from a bioleaching consortium of bacteria and archaea used in conjunction with a xanthate collector floated 77% of the chalcopyrite from a chalcopyrite/pyrite mix compared to only 32% when the xanthate collector was used alone. The poly(cyanoacrylate) so formed is completely free of turbidity. Nitrous acid with the chemical formula HNO 2 is unstable.

The result is different in this case.

They are a mixture of: amides of fatty acids and aliphatic diamines, aklyldiamines and their compounds with ortho- and pyrophosphoric acids, ester of 2-butyn-1,4 diol, and oleic acid.

The surface tension for lignosulfonate and prepared lignin-quaternary ammonium are 17 mN m− 1 and 43 mN m− 1, respectively. 200–800) and 20–80 parts of water.

In some cases the sulphide is already contained in the dye formulation and in some other cases it is added to the dyebath before dyeing. In fact, you get a yellow oil known as nitrosamine. [Patent Reference: WO2012129344, page 140, (7.3 MB)], To a solution of the amine (7.52 g, 34.8 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was added TEA (4.85 mL, 34.8 mmol) and the acid chloride (3.18 mL, 35.0 mmol) at 0 C. The reaction was allowed to warm to RT and stir for 18 h, after which time it was concentrated in vacuo and the crude material was diluted with EtOAc. The resulting mixture was stirred at RT overnight, after which time it was concentrated and the resulting material was used in the next step without further purification.

In addition to the use of salt as raw material, neutralisation of commonly used acids and alkalis produces salts as by-products. otherwise pour in ice water mixture to get the product.

Nagaoka et al. 5-Phenyl, 1,2,4-triazole-3-thione, 5-naphthyl, 1,2,4 triazole-3-thione and α –[1,3 chlorophenyl-3-p-bromophenyl-propan-1-one] benzoyl hydrazine gave 90% inhibition. Insoluble material was removed by filtration and the solids were washed with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The amount of salt employed is quite significant compared to other classes of dyestuffs, for example direct dyes, and efforts have been made by dye manufacturers to solve this problem (Table 16.9). In addition, sulphide anions are converted into hydrogen sulphide under acidic conditions, thereby giving rise to problems of odour and corrosivity.

In Lignin Chemistry and Applications, 2019. [40 mg, 80%], [Patent Reference: WO2010032200, page 76, (6.2 MB)]. During the dyeing process sodium hydrosulphite is converted into sulphite (toxic to fish and bacteria) and in some cases this is further oxidised into sulphate which may cause corrosion of concrete pipes or may be reduced under anaerobic conditions into hydrogen sulphide. The most straightforward should be the reaction with acid chlorides since they are the most reactive carboxylic acid derivatives and amines are good nucleophiles too:. A low molecular weight, polyfunctional polymer can be formed by polymerizing a vinyl monomer in the presence of a mercaptan chain transfer agent [75]. In Water-Based Chemicals and Technology for Drilling, Completion, and Workover Fluids, 2015. These compositions are essentially environmentally friendly. Waste water from sulphur dyeing contains sulphides used in the process as reducing agents. Because it is unstable, it is prepared immediately before use in the following manner: Under the acidic conditions of this reaction, all amines undergo reversible salt formation: This happens with 3º-amines…

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