If the mandrel is moved too far forward, some of the balls actually may break off inside the tube during bending (see Figure 11). The bend’s outside surface may flatten slightly because the tube ID is not supported. The calculator is based on the piping formulas and equations below. by its outside diameter.

Compression bending uses a roller or compression die (sometimes called a follow block) to bend the workpiece around a stationary bend die (Figure 6). Fd = “D” of bend Generally speaking, heavier-duty bending with thick walls and tight radii requires more concentrated lubrication. As always, you should use information from your machinery and material suppliers to determine application-specific requirements. Generally speaking, the harder the tube and the smaller the bend’s centerline radius, the greater the springback and resulting radial growth. One is a traditional clamp die used for holding straight sections, and the other—called a form die—is machined to a specific shape so it can clamp to previously formed bends.

Easily access valuable industry resources now with full access to the digital edition of The WELDER. S = maximum set-up depth (These advanced systems also can have stacks of bending dies for different tube radii, so an operator need not change out tooling between different jobs.).

T = tube outside diameter

Visit any muffler shop and you’ll probably see a ram-style bender (see Figure 3). Ks = constant for minimum clamp length Your tooling also should take radial growth into account (see Figure 9). XR: Reaction slide If workpiece cosmetics are important or the application has tight bending tolerances, the ram-type method may not be the best choice. This is a printable handbook showing how to implement in four standardized steps the "forward mandrel" set-up for rotary-draw tube-bending machines and establish process control over the so-called black art. In one complex application, for instance, the workpiece may be moved forward for the first bend (Y); the mandrel moved into position (YM), clamped (XC), and then bent (C, YB, YSFO). Figure 2 With those values then the formula for the deflection at the handle end P2 is: y = (F2 / 2) * .58^2 * (.58 + .36) / (3 * E * I) True, material variability and certain application-specific challenges make some level of unpredictability unavoidable. The pressure die (also called a pressure slide) supports the outside radius during bending. You generally can achieve a centerline radius (CLR) that’s three to four times the workpiece OD.

E = feathered edge thickness

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