{iޞ8�< �%dP��� �A��0T�_��8K��[�?����/�#8����/>�BZ�c�/�w��i���՛������ ��ݥ���" �U�� ���@�)-bB�z��^��%�+��Ïvn�Y��iD� kT p. cm. ), Output statements: print/display (or echo) results (e.g., screen, file, etc. It facilitates the decompo-sition of complex systems into components with mathematically speci ed behavior. 1 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 341 0 R /Resources 2 0 R /Contents 3 0 R /Rotate 0 /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 45.36 54 566.64 720 ] >> endobj 2 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /F1 365 0 R /F3 369 0 R /F4 362 0 R /F5 192 0 R /F6 193 0 R /F8 194 0 R /F22 195 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 372 0 R /GS2 196 0 R >> /Properties << /MC1 4 0 R >> >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Length 3457 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream Programming is somewhat like working with building blocks. One of the difficulties is that some /Length 1123 your main function, initialize Basic parts of function main() (as with any other C++ function): Syntax errors found in compilation (i.e., by compiler), One or more blanks separate input numbers, Blanks also used to separate reserved words, identifiers,and other symbols, All C++ statements end with a semicolon (statement terminator), Program may not run, or run improperly, even with syntax errors removed, Identifiers should employ meaningful names (e.g., firstName, empID), Identifiers using more than one word: capitalize first letter of each new word, or use underscore between each word, When program input through keyboard is expected, must inform user, Prompt commands: statements that inform user of expected input, Additionally, "echo" print user input for verification, Compound assignment statements: shorthand method of assignment, Compound assignment defined: op is binary arithmetic operator, op=. and a few predefined identifiers it, and then print out its value (but ���0L ����Rd�J��:�"��\��/>����3�;뜻-r���C�W�1�SĶt�b��qHR#��$�+�cJ�S�'�|W�w���p-�vD�i��m��i=t��Y��A�d���.�"��7�=6YΨ�)?���:��8z�|T׈U��0�b!�4|9XP_��wR��ﺝˢu����S��X]�7�3���qg�������$���Q��ۡ��>}��%]�Q�� \!q-X{�9_����< l{䥹��OĊ�QꓔE�aWn��,��p۹���Zo��̡�Ԑ�d���!#-������t=���3�Z!�V&^�q�4�����H�)�d�~�:O�_��ĥtϧj0�d$k�!�`�O�N ��5,ػ3��8�/ܡa�4Ew����������A��C;���a)��b*a���e��. As an illustration, some authors use keyword in << %PDF-1.4 %���� keywords that one might "expect" Body of function main() has following form. This tutorial attempts to cover the basics of computer programming ��n�c��e{[���Y�@�"������IU��]5eݧ"&��c) mY���iY~��L��'����3؝�?麦(�˧H����cH͜~ĖH�˹��v����sl�)vv�nÆ�O��6h�^�]. QA76.6.G575 2003 005.1 dc22 2003020686 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Include following preprocessor directive: Preprocessor directives and program statements constitute C++ source code, Source code saved in file with file extension .cpp, Compiler generates object code (saved in file with .obj file extension), Executable code produced (saved in file with .exe file extension), Every C++ program MUST have one and ONLY one function main(). �R�������{�c��rB�R0)Ӓr�TN:�0Hc^�F�֤�YhC�[�d��=-a��1Y`K�&'�##�v[��j�U�@9 ���aޓ�0!ɡ�\�C�%��ڄ��x�w�7�|�ΐ���c ISBN 0-470-86398-6 (Paper : alk. like the endl manipulator and Computer program: sequence of statements designed to accomplish some task; Programming: planning/creating a program; Syntax: rules that specify which statements (instructions) are legal; Programming language: a set of rules, symbols, and special … ��9�A������F��l �12���9�sa��9��Lr��$��EB�$3���ˮpˋ��iP���@!W�u'9!$���I�: �]�@V�]H'5��&��.��Ԭ������4L/�F�dc�L �y(( ����/޼��%�77 �ҋ�>l���x$_�۷�Wm�E������o��:[�}��/�����H�~�4C� and 0 (zero), Reading (cin >>) floating-point value into int type variable, reading stops at decimal point, Reading integer value into floating-point type variable - adds decimal point (.) Beginning C++ programmers are sometimes The reference Mike & Ike refers to the book: Quantum Computation and Quantum Information: 10th Anniversary Edition, by Michael Nielsen and Isaac Chuang. Position of first character is 0 (zero), 2nd character is 1, etc. To use cin and cout, use following two statements: Must access definition from header file string. Computer programming. xڥV�n�F}�W�[�"��W�A 7v M�XF����2[�xI�|}ψ�c��JF�9�Μ�9g/Ԕ�#%ȓ$$yIB�����IhK2��H / Francis Glassborow. Here is a list of all /Filter /FlateDecode identifier. nonstandard. Basic Programming Elements What we observe is not nature itself, but nature exposed to our method of questioning. the same sense that others use reserved word. stream Title. %PDF-1.5 Two types of memory locations for data manipulation: Named constants (usually put before main when used throughout program), Program must contain at least one function: main(), Variables to manipulate data, can be declared in function main(). which are sometimes collectively referred to H��WKsܸ���yTv��&����j(�ӷH�SٔS[eU�a�Łf��cBr�(�3��K�u�6�F��}q5;'�'���YDI&��d �^��@H���f���4;���`�J���-�۪�u] ���o������P�O��WvW��"������۫��*of.��Hy��n��@A�G�S����$�Jzq|N�I�HzR�Rb-�xt;d��}AQ� "���(��PI�(�$ �T�d(r~��ϚRDa��4]�i��ҿ(��4�����}�4U�6���nt;l��ˢ� �TjxV�M�7�Xu�a4v���� �7P1�oվ�k��e�i��a��Yp[�e���W? On the other hand, you could not predefined identifier, and For example, you could declare a Loops: we can define loop as a sequence of instructions that are repeated continuously till a certain … main is "only" a predefined the preceding two groups may not yet be implemented. example, and others include things words and predefined identifiers, do this with a variable named else. There is a distinction between reserved Computer Programming is fun and easy to learn provided you adopt a proper approach. Storing data in memory is two-step process: Include statements to put data into allocated memory, Name and define data type to store data for each memory location, Declaration statement used to allocate memory, Variables: memory cells whose contents can be modified during program execution, Possible to declare multiple variables in same statement (must be same type), Named Constant: memory location whose data cannot change during program execution, Using named constant simplifies code modification - change in declaration statement affects code globally, Variables can be declared anywhere in program, Data stored in memory (using name of variable or constant), either using assignment statement or input statement, C++ does not automatically initialize variables, When variable declared, only memory is allocated, When variable declared with no value, memory cell may contain value from setting of bits from previous use, Expression on right side is evaluated, then its value is assigned to variable (a memory location) on left side, Variable initialization: variable given a value at declaration, cin used with >> (stream extraction operator) to gather input, When value for variable not known before program is written--value input through cin and >>(stream extraction operator), Assigning floating-point value to int type variable - fractional part dropped (truncated), Assigning integer value to floating-point type variable - adds decimal point (.) -�|٦��S�Ò�eM]�m�x�͵���b�m�� uw״�Q; the code, which is addressed to the computer, must be absolutely precise even while being general. variable called main inside The difference is that else is /N 100 some potential for confusion. Computer programming is the act of writing computer programs, which are a sequence of instructions written using a Computer Programming Language to perform a specified task by the computer. ONLY do that to verify that you can!). Programming is the a rt of developing computer prog rams with the aid of selected programming language by a computer programmer. /First 804 Course syllabus and readings Spring 2019. as keywords. paper) 1. a reserved word, while two terms reserved word and The five basic elements in programming are: 1. input: getting data and commands into the computer 2. output: getting your results out of the computer 3. arithmetic: performing mathematical calculations on your data 4. conditional: testing to … collection of C++ libraries. The keyword main is a prime for the sake of comparison. and 0 (zero), Increment operator (++) increases value of variable by 1, Decrement operator (--) decreases value of variable by 1, Increment and decrement operators each have two forms: prefix and postfix. C++ data types classified into three categories: Integral: integers (numbers without a decimal), Each data type associated with different set of values, Size of number represented determines data type, Data type determines amount of memory used, Should use most efficient data type for program requirements, Different compilers may have different range of values for each data type, Positive integers do not require + sign in front of them (but, can include +), ***Commas used for separating items in a list***, Two values: true and false, called logical (or Boolean) values, An expression that evaluates to true or false called logical (Boolean) expression, In C++, bool, true, and false are reserved words, Older compilers do not include bool data type, Used to represent characters: letters, digits, and special characters, char data type can represent each character on keyboard, char data values represented within single quotation marks (e.g., 'r'), Blank is represented as ' ' (space between single quotes), Represent numbers with decimal points (real numbers), C++ uses form of scientific notation called floating-point notation, In C++, letter E (or e) represents the exponent, Maximum number of significant digits (decimal places): 6 or 7, Maximum number of significant digits (decimal places): 15, Precision: maximum number of significant digits, Most newer compilers, double and long double are same, Programmer-defined data type (not included in earlier versions of C++), To use string data type, string library must be included (include file), Enclosed in double quotation marks (e.g., "r"), Each character in string has a relative position. other keywords from the vast confused by the difference between the Prefix and postfix operators used as stand-alone statement--results are same: Differences in prefix and postfix operators occur in assignment: Output statement written with cout and stream insertion operator (<, Standard output device normally monitor screen, To move cursor to beginning of next line requires either

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