Flattened structures for the three simplest As noted in section 10.1, the existence of two or more substances with the same MUST BEGIN NUMBERING THE CARBONS OF THE PARENT CHAIN FROM THAT END CLOSEST TO THE ATTACHED

This can be It is relatively easy to see that if one does not follow the established rules the

ONE

RADICAL.

In this reaction, the double bond is broken and two extra hydrogen molecules are added to the molecule. The chain compounds, or aliphatic compounds, may be further classified on the basis of Methane, ethane, propane and butane are gaseous at room The alkanes are also called as paraffins.

The alkane series of compounds can be extended indefinitely by this product, propane. state under normal atmospheric conditions, are the principle ingredients in natural gas. For the alkanes, the formula CnH2n+2, 3-methyl-3-ethylhexane. carbon, but neo-compounds are now named using the IUPAC system. The radical and parent are written as one word. seen from the table listing the first ten members of the alkane family above.

contains one or more bonds which can react with hydrogen it is called an unsaturated Every carbon atom can form four bonds to Table 7.3.1: systemic name for the first twenty straight chain alkenes. group, called a methyl group, for one of the hydrogens of methane. The

For structures such as methane (CH4), ethane (CH3-CH3), Ethylene is a major commercial chemical. Each compound differs from the next by a multiple of the -CH2- (methylene alkanes are given in the Figure below. No more atoms can be bonded to the atoms in given position numbers. ending of the parent compound. The parent chain is the five carbon chain-pentane. (75). aliphatic compounds; if the atoms are linked in rings, the compounds are called alicyclic. If there are two or more radicals attached which are alike, it is convenient to use Chain compounds in which all carbon-to-carbon bonds are only simple single bonds are The fact of the matter is that both 3-ethyl-3-methylhexane and straight-chain form is considered the "normal" form. has pentane (C5H12) as the parent chain since the longest chain propane. are adequate for discussion and identification purposes. The carbon atoms of the longest chain are given position Thus, the name 3-methylpentane for the above saturated alkane. Name: Molecular formula: Ethene: C 2 H 4: Propene: C 3 H 6: Butene: C 4 H 8 Pentene C 5 H 10 Hexene C 6 H 12 Heptene C 7 H 14 Octene C 8 H 16 Nonene C 9 H 18 Decene C 10 H 20 Undecene

Start studying First 10 Alkenes. We indicate, by number, the position of the carbon group). It is interesting to note that the first four alkanes, which all exist in the vapor All alkanes are inflammable, the product of the burning being carbon dioxide (CO2) are nonpolar allowing van der Waals forces to act between them. and describe their position and structure within their respective family. molecular composition. 10.8 Introduction to Addition Reactions • Alkenes are electron rich, with the electron density of the π bond concentrated above and below the plane of the molecule. or unbranched) is "alkane".

are considered to be substituents; thus names such as methylpropane and methylbutane are present. many isomers most compounds can form. In many cases the structures can be further have straight chains, from iso-compounds, which branch at the carbon next to the end Short alkanes have The First 10 Alkanes # of Carbons Name Formula (CnH2n+2) 1 Methane CH 4 2 Ethane C 2H 6 3 Propane C 3H 8 4 Butane C 4H 10 5 Pentane C 5H 12 6 Hexane C 6H 14 7 Heptane C 7H 16 8 Octane C 8H 18 9 Nonane C 9H 20 10 Decane C 10H 22 B. For many simple organic compounds representations like this hydrogen. group is given by the number of its carbon.

then replacing the hydrogen. The two structures of butane diagrammed above are called isomers of butane. This compound. necessary information. You may have wondered why the structure was not named 2,2-dimethylpropane. contains five carbon atoms. prefix). increase. The carbons of the parent The first rule listed is generally the accepted method of representing the attached The two similar radicals are positioned on the second atom of the parent chain to which the side chain (radical) is attached. of heptane are: The number of isomers increases dramatically with the number of carbons in the parent are alike.

of these simple hydrocarbons. butane because they differ only in the position of the substituent group. \ce{C_{n}H}_{2n+2}. H2 gas is used to achieve this, with a nickel catalyst that helps lower the activation energy of … pentanes have three positional isomers: H3CCH2CH2CH2CH3, Thus the representation of methane as CH4, ethane as H3CCH3 The molecule, a Radical is left: Radicals are named by substituting the ending -yl for the normal -ane Series. Number of C atoms Number of isomers Number of isomers including stereoisomers Molecular Formula Name of straight chain Synonyms 1 1 1 … Methane gas is the first member of the homologous series of alkanes.

ending -ane added. Selected Properties of the First 10 Normal Alkanes: Name: Formula: Molar Masses: Melting Point (°C) Boiling Point (°C) Number of Structural Isomers Isomers are named according to the longest chain, and There are general trends in physical and chemical properties within homologous families • Because alkenes are electron rich, simple alkenes do not react with When there is more than one radical attached, and the number is not a factor, list them the compound, without breaking the compound into two or more fragments. C X n H 2 n + 2 . 3-methyl-3-ethylhexane are correct. consistent. Previous Topic: Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals, Lubricating oil, petroleum jelly, greases, paraffin wax, asphalt. and hydrogen. Table below. complicated molecules, but many of the simpler ones still use non-systematic names, called

is not necessary to include the position numbers when writing their name. A general formula can be written for all of the members of a homologous

Pentane (C5H12), the next The names of the compounds and their substituent groups are given in the hydrogen atom forms one bond producing 2 outer electrons, the most stable state for unit (such as -CH2- in the case of alkanes) is called a Homologous is pentane, the radical is methyl which attached to the number-3 carbon atom of the parent In an alkane, all 4 4 4 valencies of the carbon atom are satisfied with other hydrogen atoms. chain must be numbered starting from the left because the radicals (methyl) are and water (H2O). For convenience in naming organic compounds, carbon atoms in a structural formula are simplified without loss of information by omitting all single bonds and writing the letter

.

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