It gives a brief definition of each concept and its relationships. The Mahabharata says that the Sarasvati River dried up in a desert (at a place named Vinasana or Adarsana).[40]. [The] upper Ghaggar would still be as puny as it is today. [12][failed verification], The wide river bed (paleo-channel) of the Ghaggar river suggests that the river once flowed full of water during the great meltdown of the Himalayan Ice Age glaciers at the end of the Ice Age, some 10,000 years ago,[citation needed] and that it then continued through the entire region, in the presently dry channel of the Hakra River, possibly emptying into the Rann of Kutch. Late in the 2nd millennium BCE the Ghaggar-Hakra fluvial system dried up, which affected the Harappan civilisation. Most sites of the Mature Harappan Civilisation (aka Indus Valley Civilisation) (2600-1900 BCE) are actually found along the (dried-out) bed of the Ghaggar-Hakkar, while the Late Harappan Civilisation was centered on the upper Ghaggar-Hakkar and the lower Indus. 2011 Feb;173(1-4):905-16. doi: 10.1007/s10661-010-1433-4. This contrasts with the heavy alluvium of the Indus and other large Panjab rivers that have obscured Harappan sites, including part of Mohenjo Daro. The Sarasvati is often mentioned in the Rig Veda, which describes it as a mighty river located between the Indus and the Ganges, while later Vedic texts describe it as disappearing in the desert. Several times, but not continuously, it carried the water of the Sutlej and Ghaggar during the Bronze Age period. Some paleo-environmental scientists have proposed that the Hakkra was fed by Himalayan sources, which made it a mighty river,[note 5] but dried-up between 2500 BCE and 1900 BCE, due to tectonic disturbances which caused a tilt in topography of Northwest India, resulting in the migration of rivers. [71], Ajit Singh et al. 2016 Nov;188(11):627. doi: 10.1007/s10661-016-5599-2. 2015 Sep;22(17):13453-63. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-4381-2. More recently, but writing before Giosan's 2012 publication, several scholars have identified the old Ghaggar-Hakra River with the Vedic Sarasvati River and the Chautang with the Drishadvati River. "Fluvial landscapes of the Harappan Civilization", "Late glacial to Holocene Indian summer monsoon variability based upon sediment records taken from the Bay of Bengal", "Interactive map - Indus system of rivers", "Counter-intuitive influence of Himalayan river morphodynamics on Indus Civilisation urban settlements", "Geomorphological Constraints on the Ghaggar River Regime During the Mature Harappan Period", "Sarasvati: Tracing the death of a river", "On the existence of a perennial river in the Harappan heartland", "Is river Ghaggar, Saraswati? [note 2] However, just as in other contemporary cultures, such as the BMAC, settlements moved up-river due to climate changes around 2000 BCE. Reddy UA, Prabhakar PV, Rao GS, Rao PR, Sandeep K, Rahman MF, Kumari SI, Grover P, Khan HA, Mahboob M. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. The Ghaggar-Hakra River is an intermittent, endorheic river in India and Pakistan that flows only during the monsoon season. Just better. You could also do it yourself at any point in time. The water loss due to these movements caused the Ghaggar-Hakra river to dry up in the Thar Desert. Ghaggar and other sub-basin which covers part of Punjab, Rajasthan and Haryana states forms the largest sub-basin of Indus basin with total catchment area of 49978 Sq. Pesticide residues in river Yamuna and its canals in Haryana and Delhi, India. (2017) show that the paleochannel of the Ghaggar-Hakra is a former course of the Sutlej, which diverted to its present course between 15,000 and 8,000 years ago, well before the development of the Harappan civilisation. Some claim that the sanctity of the modern Ganges is directly related to its assumption of the holy, life-giving waters of the ancient Saraswati River. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. [39], The identification with the Sarasvati River is based on the mentions in Vedic texts, e.g. Ghaggar Basin:-The geographical extent of the Ghaggar and others sub-basin lies between 72° 20′ to 77° 22′ East longitudes and 27° 29′ to 30° 54′ North latitudes of the country. Sarkar SK, Bhattacharya BD, Bhattacharya A, Chatterjee M, Alam A, Satpathy KK, Jonathan MP. Ghaggar River (Ghaggarriver) is a stream (a body of running water moving to a lower level in a channel on land) and has the latitude of 29.5 and longitude of 74.8833. [note 7] The Drishadvati bed retained only a small seasonal flow.

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