Crosslinking chemistry is addressed in an easy-to-follow format designed to convey the important information you need without getting lost in details. Improvement in Water Stability and Other Related Functional Properties of Thin Cast Kafirin Protein Films. The chemistry of the glutaraldhyde–hyaluronan adduct is that of a hemiacetal and is inherently hydrolytically unstable. Enzyme-modified casein fibers and their potential application in drug delivery. After 14 days of culture: capillary tubes from a mouse aortic explant were observed.

Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. Glutaraldehyde (GA) has seen extensive use as a cross-linking agent for biomedical applications such as enzyme and cell immobilization as well as hydrogel synthesis [115,117,118,119,120,230]. A membrane emulsification method has been applied for the preparation of glutaraldehyde-cross-linked CS particles loaded with BSA as a model drug. Chemically cross-linked nanogels based on synthetic polymers PEG-cl-PEI were introduced by Kabanov et al.78 They exhibit combined properties of swollen polyelectrolyte and hydrophilic nonionic networks where the PEI chains bind oppositely charged macromolecules, leading to the collapse of the network, while nonionic PEG fragments prevent precipitation and stabilize the nanogels in aqueous dispersions.79 The particles were prepared by cross-linking branched PEI with bis-carbonyldiimidazole-activated PEG using emulsion techniques followed by evaporation of the solvent, maturation of the nanogels in aqueous solution, and final fractionation of the obtained particles by gel-permeation chromatography. Before fixation, some samples were treated with 2% collagenase/Hank’s balanced salt solution for 10 to 20 min at 37 °C [9, 10]. Greisler, in Biomaterials and Devices for the Circulatory System, 2010. Abstract. From: Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics, 2013, David R. Karsa, in Handbook for Cleaning/Decontamination of Surfaces, 2007.

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Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Here it was demonstrated that GA‐PEI performs significantly different from PEI. Two-component LbL hydrogels can also be fabricated if both film constituents contain reactive functional groups.

Lee et al.80 reported the synthesis of nanogels in oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion by chemical cross-linking between 4-nitrophenyl chloroformate (p-NPC) terminally activated oligo(l-lactic acid)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)-block-oligo(l-lactic acid) penta-block-copolymer and amine groups of poly(ethylene oxide) grafted poly(l-lysine). 14.5 [121,123]. Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition. Grafting of sulfonated polyethylene oxide (PEO-SO(3)) or heparin to GA fixed bovine pericardium has shown promising benefits in cytotoxicity, biodegradation resistance, calcification, and inflammation compared with GA treated pericardial controls (Lee et al., 2001).

GA is the most commonly used cross-linking agent due to its effectiveness in the stabilization of biomaterials, and it is easily accessible, economical, and its aqueous solutions can effectively cross-link collagenous tissues [11,127].
Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID. In any case, residual aldehyde functionality from monovalent coupling rather than bivalent linkages can be quite cytotoxic and cause an inflammatory response.

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