© Patient Platform Limited. Ann Intern Med 146:317–325, Seo JG, Park SP (2015) Validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and PHQ-2 in patients with migraine. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 (GAD-2) is a short version of the tool that is composed of the first two questions of the GAD-7 [16]. At a cutoff score >1, the GAD-2 sensitivity was 84.4 with a specificity of 72.8 %, a PPV of 46.6 %, and a NPV of 94.3 %. Kosinski M, Bayliss MS, Bjorner JB, Ware JE Jr, Garber WH, Batenhorst A, Cady R, Dahlöf CG, Dowson A, Tepper S (2003) A six-item short-form survey for measuring headache impact: the HIT-6. The correlation between GAD-7 self-report scores and DSM-IV clinical ratings is intraclass correlation=0.83. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s10194-015-0583-8. Consult a doctor or other health care professional for diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. The MINI-Plus 5.0.0 is an internationally validated brief structured interview that is used extensively as a diagnostic tool for psychiatric disorders from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition and the International Classification of Diseases-10. Items in the HIT-6 cover several domains: pain, social functioning, role functioning, vitality, cognitive functioning, and psychological distress. and is a valid and reliable tool for clinical migraine research [28]. The relationships between GAD and demographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics are listed in Table 1. RL Spitzer et all. 2,3. Cronbach’s α was 0.75. �? Registered in England and Wales. Scores of 5, 10, and 15 are taken as the cut-off points for mild, moderate and severe anxiety, respectively. Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Daegu, 700-842, Jung-gu, Republic of Korea, You can also search for this author in

The GAD-7 is a component of the Patient Health Questionnaire and is a seven-item measure about generalized anxiety symptoms in the previous 2 weeks. h�b```f`` References: GAD-7 total score for the seven items ranges from 0 to 21. The GAD-7 was translated into the Korean language, and was freely downloadable on the Patient Health Questionnaire website (www.phqscreeners.com) [25]. J Korean Neurol Assoc 27:1–6, Moon HS, Chung CS, Lee HS, Park HS, Kim SW, Woo HW (2003) The reliability and validity of the migraine-specific quality of life questionnaire for Korean migraine suffers. Using the threshold score of 10, the GAD-7 has a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 82% for GAD. 2,3. h�bbd``b`Z$S�� �jn �$�b-� "H0�t� ~�Y a�� Our study showed that at a cutoff scores of 5 in the GAD-7 and 1 in the GAD-2 had the highest sum of sensitivity and specificity. The translated version was translated back into English by a Korean English teacher. A lower total score indicates a poorer QOL.

RP Swinson. Among psychiatric disorders, anxiety is a common psychiatric comorbidity in patients with migraine [10–13]. You seem to have a popup blocker enabled. %%EOF In a Korean hospital-based study, 36.3 % of patients with migraine had depression and 23.1 % revealed anxiety by self-report questionnaires [3].

J Headache Pain 11:141–150, Pompili M, Serafini G, Di Cosimo D, Dominici G, Innamorati M, Lester D, Forte A, Girardi N, De Filippis S, Tatarelli R, Martelletti P (2010) Psychiatric comorbidity and suicide risk in patients with chronic migraine. PubMed  Pain 118:319–326, Mongini F, Ciccone G, Deregibus A, Ferrero L, Mongini T (2004) Muscle tenderness in different headache types and its relation to anxiety and depression. Plummer F, Manea L, Trepel D, McMillan D. Screening for anxiety disorders with the GAD-7 and GAD-2: a systematic review and diagnostic metaanalysis. J Clin Psychiatry 59(suppl 20):S22–S33. A family history of migraine was defined as an existing diagnosis of migraine in a lineal ascendant and/or siblings. For these purposes, a simple, rapid screening instrument to detect anxiety is a prerequisite, especially in a busy clinical setting. RESULTS: CFA procedures confirmed that a modified one-factor model was an acceptable solution. At a cutoff score of 9, the GAD-7 had a sensitivity of 89 % and a specificity of 82 % for detecting GAD compared with a structured psychiatric interview [15]. The scale consists of 21 items, each describing a common symptom of anxiety. Article  The Med Calc 8.0 was used to perform receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses to measure sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPVs) and negative predictive values (NPVs) for a range of cutoff scores of the GAD-7 and GAD2 with respect to the diagnoses of GAD by the MINI-Plus 5.0.0. Most pairwise comparisons within each SF-20 scale between successive GAD-7 severity levels were significant. In a systemic review of population-based studies, the overall prevalence of migraine worldwide was 11 %, with prevalence rates of 6 % in males and 14 % in females [1].
Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB, et al, Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB, et al, Over the last 2 weeks, how often have you been bothered. The GAD-7 showed a … All rights reserved. Sung-Pa Park. Seo, JG., Park, SP. Cephalalgia 27:193–210, Article  2006;166:1092-7. Patients were asked whether they experienced symptoms during the preceding year. 40 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<69E5207F4CDA0A08DDF1913D6AC92C1E>]/Index[21 35]/Info 20 0 R/Length 92/Prev 47622/Root 22 0 R/Size 56/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Using a cut-off of 8 the GAD-7 has a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 76% for diagnosis generalized anxiety disorder. Of the 207 patients who consecutively visited a headache clinic, 61 were excluded because of probable migraine (n = 23), taking preventive medicine for migraine or psychotropic agents (n = 10), illiteracy (n = 6), age older than 70 (n = 4), and refusal to take part in the study (n = 18). © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. 0 First, the sample size of the study was small. [1, 2]. Anxiety Mood 2:50–55, Yook SP, Kim ZS (1997) A clinical study on the Korean version of Beck Anxiety Inventory: comparative study of patient and non-patient. The following cut-offs correlate with level of anxiety severity: Score 0-4: Minimal Anxiety; Score 5-9: Mild Anxiety; Score 10-14: Moderate Anxiety; Score greater than 15: Severe Anxiety Migraine is a common and often disabling neurological disorder. This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 (GAD-2) in patients with migraine. This is calculated by assigning scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3, to the response categories of “not at all,” “several days,” “more than half the days,” and “nearly every day,” respectively. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines, so you may find the language more technical than the condition leaflets. PubMed  �c� ��G�� 2006. By using this site you agree to our use of cookies. The GAD-7 and GAD-2 have been validated in different populations and patient groups [15, 16, 29–31]. Subjects completed several instruments, including the GAD-7, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS), the Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6), and the Migraine-Specific Quality of Life (MSQoL). endstream endobj 22 0 obj <> endobj 23 0 obj <> endobj 24 0 obj <>stream J Neurol 260:1960–1969, Jette N, Patten S, Williams J, Becker W, Wiebe S (2008) Comorbidity of migraine and psychiatric disorders--a national population-based study. However, the MINI interview investigates GAD over the past 6 months. At a cutoff score of >5, the GAD-7 sensitivity was 78.1 % and specificity was 74.6 %, with a PPV of 46.3 % and an NPV of 92.4 %. The items are rated on a 4-point scale (1–4). endstream endobj startxref Our clinical information is certified to meet NHS England's Information Standard.Read more.

The GAD-7 and GAD-2 are simple screening instruments for detecting GAD in patients with migraine. No input variables or data is transmitted between your computer and our servers. 1. endstream endobj startxref 0 %%EOF 50 0 obj <>stream

Google Scholar, Hamelsky SW, Lipton RB, Stewart WF (2005) An assessment of the burden of migraine using the willingness to pay model. The National HIV Curriculum is an AIDS Education and Training Center (AETC) Program supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) as part of an award totaling $1,000,000 with 0% financed with non-governmental sources. Google Scholar, Beghi E, Bussone G, D’Amico D, Cortelli P, Cevoli S, Manzoni GC, Torelli P, Tonini MC, Allais G, De Simone R, D’Onofrio F, Genco S, Moschiano F, Beghi M, Salvi S (2010) Headache, anxiety and depressive disorders: the HADAS study. The reliability and validity of this instrument is well established [24], and the Korean translation is also validated [19]. JGS was responsible for data statistics. This calculator operates entirely from your device. Scores represent: 0-5 mild 6-10 moderate 11-15 moderately severe anxiety 15-21 severe anxiety. (REPRINTED) ARCH INTERN MED/ VOL 166, MAY 22, … A Brief Measure for Assessing Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
Patient aims to help the world proactively manage its healthcare, supplying evidence-based information on a wide range of medical and health topics to patients and health professionals. Williams, Kurt Kroenke and colleagues, with an educational grant from Pfizer Inc. No permission required to reproduce, translate, display or distribute. Being so restless that it is hard to sit still?

In our study, the sensitivity was similar and the specificity was lower than the Dutch study at the lower cutoff score [31]. ���D�'#��:F�����? PubMed  Gen Hosp Psychiatry. Arch Intern Med. A Korean translation of this 25-item questionnaire has been validated [23]. Receiver operating characteristic curves of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2. 2006. Because of the difference in the observation period between the two instruments, a low PPVs of the GAD-7 and GAD-2 may exist. The GAD-2 score was also well correlated with the BAI score (p < 0.001), the MIDAS score (p = 0.022), the HIT-6 score (p < 0.001), and the MSQoL score (p < 0.001). The internal consistency of the scale was excellent. h��Vmo�F�+�1щ�_�S$GB[rQ�M%���%c#�Qÿ��.6Ɓ�pR��2�ݙ���}f$ Subjects in this study were new patients with migraine who had consecutively visited a outpatients headache clinic in the Department of Neurology at Kyungpook National University Hospital from December 2014 to May 2015. Terms and Conditions, Cronbach’s α for the GAD-7 and GAD-2 were 0.915 and 0.820, respectively, indicating excellent internal consistency. Google Scholar, Yoo SW, Kim YS, Noh JS, Oh KS, Kim CH, Namkoong K, Chae JH, Lee GC, Jeon SI, Min KJ, Oh DJ, Joo EJ, Park HJ, Choi YH, Kim SJ (2006) Validity of Korean version of the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Cutoff scores were all lower than in previous studies. In a Finnish study that was conducted in health centers, the sensitivity was 100 % and the specificity was 82.6 % with a cutoff score of 7 or more [29].

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