The pine processionary moth is a highly damaging pine defoliator, extending its range northwards and upwards in response to winter warming. The nests of caterpillars on infested trees are clearly visible. After 30-45 days, the eggs hatch. Note that the timings of the various stages are approximate, reflecting seasonal and local variation.

The table sets out the life cycle of OPM.

The pine processionary moth (PPM), Thaumetopoea pityocampa, is not known to exist in the United States, but if introduced, it may pose a serious threat to pine and cedar trees (Cedrus spp.*). Processionary caterpillar, larval stage characteristic of the small insect family Thaumetopoeidae (order Lepidoptera), sometimes classified as part of the prominent moth family (Notodontidae). Pupation takes place in the soil in an oval, ochreous-white silken cocoon. The winter pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae), provides a classic example of an insect feeding on mature foliage that does not need to be synchronized with Correspondence: Laura Berardi, University of Padova, Department DAFNAE- The Pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), is a major pest of pine trees around the Mediterranean Sea. A few hours after emergence and mating, the females oviposit on the nearest pines.

Life Cycle.
Pupation takes place at a depth of about 10 cm and the pupae enter diapause. h�b```f``e`b`Ȟ� Ȁ �@1f�7������9߁�a���K�;�30�#��0��fbv��/��L��θ���`���$*��n����@� E2�

�E`�x$;�V�������/x�f�S���5� է��.������]Ҏ{���ִ� ���������+0U���VK�E'T�:u����&�j��jby/��>^s*$�*.� ��G�+~�����/ ͈�} endstream endobj 149 0 obj <>stream The head capsule is black. h��X�n�6���w In mature forests, trees are rarely killed but significant losses occur in volume growth. h�̖m��@ǿ�|wgg8|��r�RQ_D�եX�9��o�Ib6�R��Ԧ1������og�A�E�|3�3� )��|EN���TD`(��ݝ'������e+~/a^��c-�?��m��l8d���w�䴒 ���f����I\��c�yV�^��4y�:���7W-f��]B�51�Y�n}��yʧ�|�{�ӅG��t���Y*@]�b»c�%~a�j����Z���&p������Ȝ��d���J��M�ҟrq�h���x->���o�E'�:ť�{�q-�yU����X���ը4�'��rϑ1-2�E�6dT���L�% Pine processionary (Thaumetopea pityocampa) is a very particular kind of moth; its life cycle includes, of course, a caterpillar stage, which has a well-known behavior.During the process of metamorphosis, these dangerous insects walk down from the pines where they had nested in columns, creating an actual procession of caterpillars.. h�\�� �0��V�w��D9Z�����qA���`(`[�Z΀̌�`8�܎�z@�y8����V��0~� %%EOF These effects occur not only when the caterpillars are present, but also during the following summer because of the persistence of allergenic hairs in the remains of winter nests. The larvae of the Pine processionary moth cause severe defoliation, reducing the viability of oak trees.

During this time it must mate and lay its eggs in the foliage of a pine tree; a single female can lay up to 300 tiny eggs and it takes around a month for them to hatch.
For more information, please see our, By signing up for our newsletter, you accept our, Click here for all locations and suppliers. The pine processionary moth hatches around May to July and only lives for about a day.

The adult European pine shoot moth (Rhyacionia buoliana) is a rusty orange-red moth with irregular, silvery markings on the forewings, plain brown hindwings, and whitish legs. First stage larvae hatch from eggs in April; Moths will lay eggs on multiple oak trees In its mature larval stage, it is about a 3/8-inch long brown caterpillar with a black head. Below is a table that shows the recommended treatment options for the life-cycle stages of development of the oak processionary moth.

Domestic and farm animals may also be affected. i%���(�q.e%��ϙXsp6���tQ}�nv�Cu����Y�99�F���Mk�|�zy9�� �t-�W �%r��\��Ĥ�ǃ����bU�a�O�in™&Urפ\vF�AtD"Fg�P �B��,G�@C�N After the second moult, the caterpillar assumes its definitive appearance and the reddish dorsal urticating hair patches on each body segment appear, arranged in pairs. 148 0 obj <>stream prohibitive mortality, or preclude the completion of the life cycle. In general, the integument is darker in colder areas and varies from dull bluish-grey to black. You can find more information about the use of cookies in our Privacy Statement and Cookie Statement.

The larvae develop through five instars and the full-grown caterpillar is about 40 mm in length.

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