… In addition, projects aggregating to 569 MW capacity are under various stages of implementation. By 31 March 2004, a total of 1,602 MW capacity had been set up. Concentrating type solar cooker is of three broad types, viz., dish solar cooker, community solar cooker and solar steam cooking system. Further, it could yield manure equivalent to 14 million tonnes of nitrogen, 13 million tonnes of phosphate and 0.9 million tonnes of potash. In India, Gujarat and Tamil nadu have windmills. Solar Thermal Extension Programme, Solar Cooker Programme, Solar Buildings Programme, Research and Development (R&D) Programme and Aditya Solar Shops. Rajasthan can be expected to emerge as a significant wind power generating state in the country. In the process India has emerged a world leader in the development and deployment of gasifier technology and systems. These are called commercial energy because they have a price and consumer has to pay the price to purchase them. Similarly, the technology for producing biomass briquettes from agricultural residues and forest litter at both household and industrial levels has been developed. 0000007265 00000 n For example, nearly 30 per cent of the electricity used in the pulp and paper industry is cogenerated with stream production in paper mills. Non-conventional sources of Energy. is produced. The energy sources which cannot be compensated, once these are used (after their exploitation) are termed as conventional energy sources. 0000001160 00000 n Due to the efforts made by MNES during the last several years both the technology and the manufacturing base for solar water heating is now well established. Energy is one of the most important component of economic infrastructure. The bacterial and chemical decomposition of such plant debris (which remained buried under water or clay) produced an intermediate product known as peat which is mainly cellulose (C6H10O5)n. Due to progressive decomposition by heat and pressure, the cellulose lost moisture H2 and Oz and got converted in to coal as per the given equation. 0000002924 00000 n It has been estimated that India has about 93.69 million hectares of waste lands out of which 20 million hectares is productive non-forest land which would be able to produce 400 million tonnes of fuel wood per year equivalent to 60,000 MW of power. Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, mostly alkanes and cycloalkanes. In coming years, there would be shortage of fire wood. This aims at increasing the productivity to about 40 tonnes per hectare per year as compared to the average forest tree production rate of 0.5 tonne per hectare per year. India is now the fourth largest coal producing country in the world. Gasifier plants have been set up in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Nagaland and some other states. Image Guidelines 5. In 1950-51, installed capacity of hydro-electricity was 587.4 MW and in 2004-05, it was 19600 MW. In India the mini and micro-­hydroelectricity project (MMHP) systems together are treated as small hydro power (SHP) system. Solarised huts are being designed in cold areas of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh to keep the buildings warm. Electricity is the common and popular source of energy. Definition of Non-Conventional Sources of Energy. Solar water systems (solar geysers) of capacities ranging from 100 to 300 litres per day are suited for domestic applications. The other wind farms of 28 MW are located at Lamba and Mandvi in Gujarat. The largest wind farm has been set at Kanyakumari which generates 380 mW of electricity. 0000007567 00000 n Hydro-power project Hirakud, Bhakra Mangal project, Narmada valley project, Nagarjun Sagar project, Sardar Sarovar project etc. All India dung production is about 11.30 kg per cattle and 11.60 kg per buffalo with about 67.10 m3 of gas per ton of wet dung. India has also developed nuclear power. If two-third of this quantity is used to produce biogas, it could yield 22,425 million cubic metre of biogas which could save 33,904 million litres of kerosene. Natural resources like wind, tides, solar, biomass, etc generate energy which is known as “Non-conventional resources“. trailer << /Size 84 /Info 46 0 R /Root 49 0 R /Prev 166107 /ID[<55cc8fcdf7452af6af2e79b1b621a673>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 49 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 45 0 R /Metadata 47 0 R /PageLabels 44 0 R >> endobj 82 0 obj << /S 302 /L 421 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 83 0 R >> stream In 2000-01 agriculture sector consumed 26.8%, industrial sector 34.6% and 24% of electricity was used for domestic purposes and 7% was used for commercial purpose. To promote these products, a subsidy-based thermal extension programme was launched in 1984 and continued upto 1993. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) is a ministry of the Government of India that is mainly responsible for research and development, intellectual property protection, and international cooperation, promotion, and coordination in renewable energy sources such as wind power, small hydro, biogas, and solar power.. So long as this natural cycle is maintained, the question of pollution due to waste does not arise. The technical potential of solar water heaters in the country has been estimated to be 140 million sq metres of collector area. A liquid mixture of propane and butane can be obtained from natural gas or refinery gases at room temperature under a pressure of 3-5 atmosphere. As a result, several products have been developed indigenously. 0000006526 00000 n Be it a small-scale unit or a remote island, the biomass gasifier has come as a saviour cutting down on the consumption of precious fossil fuels on the one hand and bringing about economic development on the other. Disclaimer 9. Agricultural wastes like straw are used as fuel for cooking purposes. This problem can be avoided by massive afforestation (plantation) on degraded forest land, culturable waste land, barren land grazing land etc. 3. Already a number of solar drying systems have been installed in the country and these are helping to save significant amounts of conventional fuels. Sometimes form waters can also be added to the slurry. The National Project on Biogas Development (NPBD) was taken up in Central Sector during 1981-82 on country wide basis. India could take up Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) and by the process it will be capable of generating 50,000 mW of electricity, to meet the power requirements of remote oceanic islands and coastal towns. In order to release the pressure on mineral oils (a nonrenewable resource), the scientists have discovered some potential plant species from which liquid hydrocarbons can be extracted. The left-over digested slurry serves as enriched manure. 4,000 crore. About 5,000 MW of power could be generated through wind mills in Gujarat alone where there is a near constant wind flow averaging 20 km per hour with the added benefit of there being little danger from cyclones. India has second position in wind power energy generation. Thorium is recovered from monazite sand found in the state of Kerala. In India it is found in upper Assam, Mumbai High and in Gujarat. Under this programme, solar photovoltaic cells are exposed to sunlight and in the form of electricity is produced. As on 31 March, 2004, 60.20 MW biomass gasifier systems were installed in various states. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge 0000007720 00000 n This has resulted in saving of about 13.2 lakh tonnes of bio-fuels and 1.6 lakh litres of kerosene per year. Energy is released by direct burning of biomass (e.g. Some important coal fields are : Talcher, Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro, Panch Konkam, Signoulli, Chanda etc. India is endowed with large hydropower potential of 1,45,320 MW. 0000003692 00000 n In 1992, DNES was converted into Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES) which has taken several steps to create a suitable atmosphere for harnessing non-conventional sources of energy. As per given data, around 22,420-million m3 of gas can be produced from the large amount of cow dungs obtained in rural areas in a year. The exploitable potential for power generation from agro residues, agro-industrial resources (excluding bagasse) and forestry residues has been estimated at 16,000 MW on a conservative basis.


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