Thus the above examples show that both product yield can be increased and tar formation can be reduced by (1) introduction of H2 O2 in multiple stages and (2) using catalysts with different Si/Ti ratios in different beds. Copper(II)-induced oxidations of aromatic substrates: catalytic conversion of catechols to o-benzoquinones. http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html. The concentration of such titanium atoms may, conveniently be expressed as the molar ratio of silicon to titanium atoms in the solid; higher is this ratio, lower is the titanium content in the solid. Wondemagegn Hailemichael Wanna, Ravirala Ramu, Damodar Janmanchi, Yi-Fang Tsai, Natarajan Thiyagarajan, Steve S.-F. Yu. Binuclear furanyl-azine metal complexes encapsulated in NaY zeolite as efficiently heterogeneous catalysts for phenol hydroxylation. Another object of the present invention is to provide a continuous rather than a batch or semibatch process for the oxidation of phenol. The following examples are illustrative of the practice of this invention without being limiting on the scope thereof. Yitao Zhao, Guangyu He, Wen Dai, and Haiqun Chen . Selective determination of cholesterol based on cholesterol oxidase-alkaline phosphatase bienzyme electrode. 3. 6). Spectral data on ligands 1s−9s. It is, therefore, an object of this invention to provide an improved process for the oxidation of phenol to hydroquinone and catechol wherein the production of the undesired by product tar is suppressed leading thereby to enhanced yields of hydroquinone and catechol. not otherwise permitted to reproduce, republish, redistribute, or sell any Supporting Information of an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide (26 wt %) was injected individually at the top of each bed (per hour) without preheating.

It has been found that when the process of conversion of phenol to a mixture of hydroquinone and catechol is carried out in accordance with the above mentioned features and embodiments of this invention, there is a significant reduction in the amount of by-product tar formation. Xia Zhang, Tianyong Zhang, Yiwen Li, Bin Li, Shuang Jiang, Guanghui Zhang, Li Hai, Xiaoyuan Ma, Wubin Wu, Jingchao Wang. No. Alma D. Salazar-Aguilar, Gonzalo Vega, Jose A. Casas, Sofía Magdalena Vega-Díaz, Ferdinando Tristan, David Meneses-Rodríguez, Manuel Belmonte, Asunción Quintanilla. The catalyst in the first bed had a Si/Ti ratio of 33, the second bed had a riot of 52, while the third bed had a Si/Ti ratio of 77. This invention relates to an improved process for the conversion of phenol to a mixture of hydroquinone and catechol. In addition to the above desired products, significant amounts of heavy oxidation products, hereinafter referred to as tar, were also produced in the process. PATENTED CASE. Accordingly, it is advantageous to have a high concentration of the oxidation active sites in the initial or front end portion of the catalyst bed and a correspondingly lower concentration of the oxidation active sites in the catalyst at the lower end of the catalyst bed. Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Process for olive tree pruning lignin revalorisation. C. at a point approximately in the middle of the catalyst bed. The oxidation active sites in titanium silicate molecular sieves are the titanium atoms on the surface of the catalyst.

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