According to the IBGE census 2010[100] 64.6% are Roman Catholics; 24% are Protestants and other Christians, 8% are agnostics, atheists or have no religion, 2% are followers of Spiritism, and 1% are members of other religions. [43][44] A survey conducted in 1998 by the Minas Gerais sociologist Simon Schwartzman interviewed about 34 million Brazilians, of whom nearly 20 million declared themselves white. In order to control the wealth, the Portuguese Crown moved the capital of Brazil from Salvador, Bahia to Rio de Janeiro.

Most immigrants landed in the Port of Santos and have been forwarded to the coffee farms within São Paulo. They created many other Italian colonies on their own, mainly in highlands, because the lowlands were already populated by Germans and native gaúchos. Elaboration of data by United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. In 2003, the literacy rate was at 88 percent of the population, and the youth literacy rate (ages 15–19) was 93.2 percent. The country's growth is in many ways hampered by the large number of Brazilian women entering the workforce and choosing to wait longer to have children. In the Northwest (covering largely the Brazilian Amazon), a great part of the population has distinguishable ethnic characteristics that emphasize their Amerindian roots. More than half, however, managed to point to a foreign origin: 15.72% indicated Italian ancestry, 14.50% Portuguese, 6.42% Spanish, 5.51% German and 12.32% other origins, which include Polish, Ukrainian, Russian, Lithuanian, Dutch, Austrian, Swiss, French, Hungarian, Norwegian, partial distant African, indigenous, British, American Confederate, Jewish (mostly Ashkenazi, but also Sephardi including Jews from Morocco and Egypt) By 2020, it is predicted the number of citizens will creep close to 214 million. The main religion in Brazil is Christianity, and around 90% of the population is either Catholic (65%) or Protestant (22%). [26][27] These immigrants were divided in two groups: a part of them was sent to Southern Brazil to work as small farmers. The Azoreans lived on fishing and agriculture, especially flour. Brazil has the largest Roman Catholic population in the world.[102]. Other languages are spoken by descendants of immigrants, who are usually bilingual, in small rural communities in Southern Brazil. Later, interracial relationships occurred between Portuguese males and African females. The most important cities are on the coast or close to it. This helps explain the slowing population growth. Europa do Centro-Leste para o Brasil. [51] Notably, the first half of the 20th century saw a large inflow of Japanese (mainly from Honshū, Hokkaidō and Okinawa) and Arab Christians from Lebanon and Syria. These were Garibaldi and Bento Gonçalves. At that time, the Azores were one of the poorest regions of Portugal. Pena of the Federal University of Minas Gerais have shown that the caboclo population is made of individuals whose DNA ranges from 70% to 90% European (mostly Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, French or Italian 1500s to 1700s male settlers) with the remaining percentage spanning different Indigenous markers. In the Northeast, which received large masses of African slaves to work in sugarcane, tobacco and cotton plantations, people of African and mixed-race descent predominate, mostly on the coast, whereas in the semi-arid country land (usually called sertão) there is a predominance of Europeans and Amerindian-European mixed people. The Amerindian culture declined, giving space to a stronger Portuguese cultural domination. "Brazilian homogeneity is, therefore, a lot greater between Brazilian regions than within Brazilian regions". Slightly over half the size of Sao Paulo, it has a population of 6,355,949. [103] Today, the Muslim population in Brazil is made up mostly of Arab immigrants. Overall, the small but sizable Brazilian Jewish community is concentrated especially in São Paulo,[35] Rio de Janeiro[36] and Porto Alegre,[37] and they are accounted for without Brazilian descendants of Portuguese "New Christians" (ethnic Sephardic Jews forced to convert to Christianity and arrived with the ethnic Portuguese during the colonial period),[34] which if included would inflate the Jewish origin population in Brazil considerably. [28] This research interviewed about 90,000 people in six metropolitan regions (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, and Recife). Most of the African or mulatto people in the sertão are descended from freed African slaves or mulattos who fled inland from the coast and worked as cowboys for semi-feudal lords. A new wave of settlers started arriving from the 1970s. Settlers from Germany were brought to work as small farmers, because there were many land holdings without workers. However, there were no specific policies implemented by the government to encourage or discourage this emigration process.

Since 1940, this census has been carried out decennially. According to the latest census, undertaken in 2010, the population of Brazil was 190.7 million, although this number has grown significantly in the last six years. This number decreased to 25% in 1858 and to only 5.2% in 2005. They established themselves mainly in the Santa Catarina Island, nowadays the region of Florianópolis. 2013 was the first time Brazil topped 200 million, and it continues rising faster than previous estimates as its ever-growing middle class live longer than their parents. Following the trend of several other countries in the Americas, which encouraged immigration from many countries, Brazil quickly became a melting pot of races and nationalities, but being peculiar in the sense of having the highest degree of intermarriage in the world. According to the 2010 census, there were more than 91 million European-Brazilians, comprising 47.73% of Brazil's population. [12], Registration of vital events in Brazil has considerably improved during the past decades but is still not considered complete, especially in the northern part of the country.

The largest influx of European immigrants to Brazil occurred in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. According to the 2006 census people reported as "brown" make up 62.5% of the population. A significant number of Poles have settled in Southern Brazil.
After reaching its population peak in 2045, Brazil’s population is expected to decrease slowly, starting at a growth rate of -0.01%. This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document: "2006 edition".

[80], According to a DNA study from 2010, "a new portrayal of each ethnicity contribution to the DNA of Brazilians, obtained with samples from the five regions of the country, has indicated that, on average, European ancestors are responsible for nearly 80% of the genetic heritage of the population.

It has the largest percentage of Asian-Brazilians, composing 0.8%, and a small Amerindian community (0.2%). As set out by the Brazilian Constitution, the main responsibility for basic education is attributed to the states and municipalities.

Country's Share of World Pop: Total population in the country as a percentage of total World Population as of July 1 of the year indicated. [52][53], Today 15% of Brazilians or 31 million citizens are of Italian extraction, the largest number outside of Italy itself, most of them descended from Northern Italians, reason why Talian, or the Venetian dialect, is the third most spoken mother tongue in the nation. [86], São Paulo state, the most populous state in Brazil, with about 40 million people, showed the following composition, according to an autosomal study from 2006: European genes account for 79% of the heritage of the people of São Paulo, 14% are of African origin, and 7% Native American. In 1998, the IBGE, within its preparation for the 2000 census, experimentally introduced a question about "origem" (ancestry) in its "Pesquisa Mensal de Emprego" (Monthly Employment Research), in order to test the viability of introducing that variable in the Census. The whole region of Vale dos Sinos was populated by Germans. The descendants of European immigrants, particularly the Germans, Italians, Austrians, Swiss, Poles, Ukrainians, French, Dutch, Lithuanians, Scandinavians, Russians, Hungarians, Finns and Luxembourgers are mainly concentrated in the southern part of the country, in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, and the most populous, São Paulo; these states have a wide majority of citizens of European descent. As well as ‘indigenous’ (the smallest category), Brazilians are asked to report whether they believe they are white, black, brown or yellow. The Portuguese settlers rarely brought women, which led to relationships with the Indian women. Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. The vast majority of Brazilians have at least some African heritage.

[2] With a total population of 211,531,000 as of 2020[update], Brazil is the sixth most populated country in the world. Interestingly, Brazil is believed to have the biggest population of uncontacted peoples on earth, and the National Indian Foundation reported 67 uncontacted tribes in the country in 2007, up from 40 just two years prior. The largest city in Brazil is Sao Paulo. [30], The 2000 Brazilian Census provides some information about the high number of migrants returning to Brazil. Higher education starts with undergraduate or sequential courses, which may offer different specialization choices such as academic or vocational paths.
[96]. Hans Van Tilberg, Sila Tripati, Veronica Walker, Brian Fahy and Jun Kimura. Jews in Brazil are a small but sizable population,[32][33] and they include mostly Ashkenazi Jews (who also arrived with the post-colonial contingent of European migration),[34] a smaller proportion of Sephardi Jews (mostly Eastern Sephardim arrived with the contingent of post-colonial immigrants from Syria and Lebanon, but also North African Sephardim from Morocco settled in the Amazon, and Western Sephardim arrived with the Dutch), and to a much lesser extent Mizrahi Jews. In the 1990s, nearly 1.9 million Brazilians were living outside the country, mainly in the United States, Paraguay and Japan,[29] but also in Italy, Portugal, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Australia, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, Spain and Israel. the biggest population of uncontacted peoples on earth. The proportional difference is even greater among European women compared to African 25–29 years. Nowadays, there are still small immigration waves coming from the African continent. Brazil population density is 25.4 people per square kilometer (65.9/mi 2) as of November 2020. Some of the largest indigenous language groups include Arawak, Carib, Macro-Gê and Tupi. This situation made the region vulnerable to attacks from neighboring countries. Brazil is the sixth most populated country in the world. [76], An autosomal DNA study (2011), with nearly 1000 samples from all over the country ("Europeans", "Pardos" and "Africans", according to their respective proportions), found out a major European contribution, followed by a high African contribution and an important Native American component. This method of classifying race is controversial within Brazil, and IBGE has been criticized for continuing to use it.

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