Weird things about the name Prokaryotic: The name spelled backwards is Citoyrakorp. [12] In eukaryotes, however, nucleosomes act as major barriers to transcribing polymerases during transcription elongation. [91], Three factors contribute to generating and maintaining chromosomal DNA supercoiling in E. coli: (i) activities of topoisomerases, (ii) the act of transcription, and (iii) NAPs. [144] Although HU appears to control gene expression by modulating supercoiling density, the exact molecular mechanism remains unknown and the impact of MukB on gene expression is yet to be analyzed. Bacteria are among the best-known prokaryotic organisms. Consequences for nucleoprotein complex assembly and chromatin condensation", "The histone-like protein HU binds specifically to DNA recombination and repair intermediates", "Preferential binding of E.coli histone-like protein HU alpha to negatively supercoiled DNA", "HU protein of Escherichia coli binds specifically to DNA that contains single-strand breaks or gaps", "Atomic force microscopic demonstration of DNA looping by GalR and HU", "Structure-based analysis of HU-DNA binding", "HU multimerization shift controls nucleoid compaction", "Genomic analysis of DNA binding and gene regulation by homologous nucleoid-associated proteins IHF and HU in Escherichia coli K12", "Noncoding RNAs binding to the nucleoid protein HU in Escherichia coli", "Dual architectural roles of HU: formation of flexible hinges and rigid filaments", "A Guide to Magnetic Tweezers and Their Applications", "Direct and indirect effects of H-NS and Fis on global gene expression control in Escherichia coli", "Growth phase variation of integration host factor level in Escherichia coli", "Physical organization of DNA by multiple non-specific DNA-binding modes of integration host factor (IHF)", "Two heat-resistant, low molecular weight proteins from Escherichia coli that stimulate DNA-directed RNA synthesis", "Histone-like proteins in the purified Escherichia coli deoxyribonucleoprotein", "H-NS mediated compaction of DNA visualised by atomic force microscopy", "Increased bending rigidity of single DNA molecules by H-NS, a temperature and osmolarity sensor", "A divalent switch drives H-NS/DNA-binding conformations between stiffening and bridging modes", "Mechanism of environmentally driven conformational changes that modulate H-NS DNA-bridging activity", "Visualization of vacuolar acidification-induced transcription of genes of pathogens inside macrophages", "H-NS Regulates Gene Expression and Compacts the Nucleoid: Insights from Single-Molecule Experiments", "Salmonella enterica response regulator SsrB relieves H-NS silencing by displacing H-NS bound in polymerization mode and directly activates transcription", "Charged residues in the H-NS linker drive DNA binding and gene silencing in single cells", "DNA Sequence Determinants Controlling Affinity, Stability and Shape of DNA Complexes Bound by the Nucleoid Protein Fis", "Genome-wide analysis of Fis binding in Escherichia coli indicates a causative role for A-/AT-tracts", "Low-force DNA condensation and discontinuous high-force decondensation reveal a loop-stabilizing function of the protein Fis", "Mechanism of chromosome compaction and looping by the Escherichia coli nucleoid protein Fis", "G inversion in bacteriophage Mu DNA is stimulated by a site within the invertase gene and a host factor", "The bacterial histone-like protein HU specifically recognizes similar structures in all nucleic acids. The road to success is always under construction. [1] Overall, RNA helps synthesize, regulate, and process proteins; it therefore plays a fundamental role in performing functions within a cell.

However, later data showed that upon and following promoter clearance, the sigma factor is released according to a stochastic model known as the stochastic release model.[9]. Topo III is dispensable in E. coli and is not known to have any role in supercoiling in E.
Thus, pure DNA becomes substantially condensed without any additional factors; at thermal equilibrium, it assumes a random coil form. HU also appears to act together with MukB to promote long-range DNA-DNA interactions. [23], Transcription can be measured and detected in a variety of ways:[citation needed].
A null strain of topA, the gene encoding Topo I, survives only because of the presence of suppressor mutations in the genes encoding DNA gyrase.

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