This motivated us to study if the national flag is used in the same context by various parties. Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. In there, we had 547 accounts from members of German Bundestag (MdB) and the rest from the official party outlets at national and state level. Our article draws on multiple lines of research on understanding the function and importance of national symbols and role of emoji in online communication. Similar studies have been conducted in the context of emoji, for example, Barbieri et al. Our results indicate that even though the use of the national flag in Germany as a national symbol is highly contested, national flags in Germany remain a powerful symbol when it comes to interaction with online content. Additionally, to investigate whether the presence of an emoji leads to a higher engagement with content, we calculated the median number of retweets of all tweets and compared the number to the median number of retweets that contain either an emoji, a flag emoji or the national flag. (, Butz, D. A., Plant, E. A., Doerr, C. E. (, Carter, T. J., Ferguson, M. J., Hassin, R. R. (, Dhir, A., Khalil, A., Kaur, P., Rajala, R. (, Dohmen, T. J., Falk, A., Huffman, D., Sunde, U. In his seminal work, Mueller (1970) studied the increased support of the president of the United States during time of crisis and formulated the theory of “Rally around the national flag.” It suggests that during crisis the president is seen as an embodiment of national unity, in a similar way as a national symbol. Their results indicate that emoji are mostly used to express sentiment, strengthen expression, and adjust tone. In a similar study, Carter et al. However, there has been little discussion about whether this variance of meanings is also applicable with regard to emoji representing strong national symbols like national flags. In the recent years, right-wing nationalism is on rise globally (Duara, 2018; Snyder, 2019; “The right-wing nationalists shaking up Europe,” 2019). AfD has the largest number of tweets with German flag in our data set. This leads us to the following research questions: Research Question 1: How does the national flag emoji usage differ across political parties? Facebook, however, does include an indigo band in its design, displayed in a blue sky. They show that such representations are useful for the downstream task like sentiment analysis. (, Miller Hillberg, H., Levonian, Z., Kluver, D., Terveen, L., Hecht, B. In this investigation, we use the cosine between two vectors to investigate how similar two words are. Learn and gain inspiration from people using emoji now ️ Create emoji images .. Emoji is codes! He is also a member of the Institute for Information Management Bremen GmbH (ifib) and the Centre for Media, Communication and Information Research (ZeMKI). He received graduate degrees in human-computer interaction and design from the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, and Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland. It is a nonparametric test that is used to test whether the medians of two samples are identical. Further, we should expect differences in the use of the national flag emoji by party affiliation, given a party’s relationship to nationhood and national symbols.

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