This article is about Maria Feodorovna, the second wife of Tsar Paul I of Russia. At the end of 1782, the couple returned to Russia and devoted their attention to Pavlovsk Palace, where Maria gave birth to Alexandra Pavlovna, the first of six daughters she would bear during the next twelve years. "[4], As Grand Duchess, Maria Feodorovna possessed such parsimony that she was prepared to spend the whole day in full dress without fatigue and implacably imposed the same burden on her entourage. By 1826, the mortality rate was reduced to 15% per annum,[9] a figure outrageous by modern standards but a great improvement on the 18th century. Paul, bored by his political inactivity and restless in the country, ultimately looked for more stimulating company than his wife could provide and found it in one of her ladies-in-waiting, Catherine Nelidova . After Maria gave birth to her tenth and last child in 1798, Paul became infatuated with 19-years-old Anna Lopukhina and lied his wife that the relationship was of a paternal nature. Encyclopedia.com. Many in her court snubbed or insulted Paul and Sophia, and foreign dignitaries considered it politic to avoid Pavlovsk as well as Paul's other estate at Gatchina. She was devoted to expanding her modest literary salon, which was frequented by poet Vasily Zhukovsky, fabulist Ivan Krylov, and historian Nikolai Karamzin. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. During Catherine's lifetime, Maria had no chance of interfering in affairs of state, as Paul himself was excluded, but after her husband's accession to the throne, she took to politics, at first timidly, but increasingly resolutely afterwards. She isolated him from all state affairs, considered removing him from the line of succession, and insisted on raising his two older sons in St. Petersburg. Genealogy for Friederike Sophia Dorothea von Brandenburg-Schwedt (Hohenzolleren), Herzogin zu Württemberg. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 23 juin 2019 à 13:11. Even past age 50, Maria Feodorovna retained traces of her youthful freshness. Rather than being brought up on the ideas of the Enlightenment, as had their older brothers, Nicholas and Michael learned conservative values and military traditions at Pavlovsk. The second wife of Paul I, Emperor of All Russia, Her Serene Highness Duchess Sophia Dorothea of Württemberg (Sophia Marie Dorothea Auguste Luise) was the eldest of the four daughters and the fourth of the twelve children of Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg and Friederike Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt. When Alexander was a few months old, Catherine removed him from the care of his parents and brought h…, Alexander II "Sophia Dorothea of Wurttemberg (1759–1828) She was equally watchful to attack Catherine's favorites, Grigori Alexandrovich Potemkin and Alexander Dmitriev-Mamonov. Her efforts would produce some of the most beautiful estates in all of Russia. Paul, whose first wife Natalie of Hesse-Darmstadt had died in childbirth, was not, however, an ideal husband. Soon after arriving at St Petersburg, she converted to the Russian Orthodox Church, took the name "Maria Feodorovna," and was granted the title Grand Duchess of Russia, with the style Imperial Highness. Elle mourut en 1681, à l'âge de 22 ans et a été entrée dans l'Église de Gedern. Following Paul's assassination in 1801, Sophia Dorothea became a formidable dowager empress and a force for conservatism in Russia until her own death in 1828. It took her son Alexander several days to persuade her to relinquish her reckless claim, for which she had no party to support her. or October 7, 1776; children: Alexander I (1777–1825), tsar of Russia; Constantine (1779–1831, who married Anna Juliana of Saxe-Coburg ); Alexandra Pavlovna (1783–1801); Helena Pavlovna (1784–1803, who married Frederick Louis of Mecklenburg-Schwerin); Marie Pavlovna (1786–1859, who married Charles Frederick, duke of Saxe-Weimar); Olga (1792–1795); Catherine of Russia (1788–1819, who married William I of Württemberg); Anna Pavlovna (1795–1865, who married William II, king of the Netherlands); Nicholas I(1796–1855), tsar of Russia (r. 1825–1855); Michael (1798–1849), grand duke. As a result of this policy, the new facilities housed up to 8,000 residents of all ranks in the 1820s. For Maria Feodorovna, the wife of Tsar Alexander III, see, Maria Feodorovna (Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg). There were those in court, however, who did not like the stabilizing influence of the Sophia-Nelidova alliance or the pro-Prussian, anti-French policy which "the empress' party" advocated. The family's summer residence was situated at Étupes. Her court, laced with protocol and ceremony, became the unofficial center of St. Petersburg's society. [2] McGrew, Roderick. The Moscow Crafts College, the largest spin-off, was established as an orphanage for teenagers in 1830 and continues today as the Bauman Moscow State Technical University. During his first years in office, he consulted his wife on domestic reform, put her in charge of the Society for the Education of the Daughters of the Nobility, and personally crowned her his empress. Throughout her marriage with Paul I of Russia, Maria Feodorovna had ten children. Her influence over her husband was great, and in general beneficial. She was the eldest daughter of the eight children born from Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg, and Princess Friederike of Brandenburg-Schwedt, niece of King Frederick II of Prussia. The future of her daughters and the education of her younger sons kept Maria's attention occupied during the first years of her widowhood. She demanded the respect she was never accorded by her mother-in-law to the point of insisting that she, and not Alexander's wife Elizabeth of Baden , should be the first lady of Russia. Perpetuating the tradition of Catherine II, she attended parades in military uniform, the cordon of an order across her breast.[8]. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1988. The difficulty in her life was not her husband but rather her domineering mother-in-law. His mother died three years into his reign at the age of 69. His obsessive behavior and uncontrollable temper led many contemporaries and historians to question his mental stability. Among the teachers were Sergey Solovyov, Alexander Vostokov, Vasily Klyuchevsky, Nicholas Benois, and Vasily Vereshchagin. Russian Empress, Catherine II, was delighted with the idea: The Princess of Württemberg shared with her not only a similar education, but also the same original name and place of birth. Paul was as happy with the young princess as she was with him and wrote to his mother that: "I found my intended to be such as I could have dreamed of. Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Her memory was revered by her children, who named their eldest daughters in her honour except for Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna. [10] By 1828, their total assets exceeded 359 million roubles, the largest capital assets in all of Moscow. "Sophia Dorothea of Wurttemberg (1759–1828) Examples include her brother, Prince Alexander of Württemberg (1771–1833). Maria Fedorovna and Paul began remodelling Pavlovsk. Tsar Paul and the Question of Madness: An Essay in History and Psychology. Elle n'a pas eu d'enfants. She wrote to a friend: "My dear husband is a perfect angel and I love him to distraction. Sophie Marie Dorothea Auguste Louise was born in Stettin, Kingdom of Prussia (now Poland), as the Duchess of Württemberg. Although the imperial couple wasn't as close as they once had been, there remained a good deal of warmth between them. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Despite Paul's difficult and often tyrannical character, Maria Feodorovna never changed her feelings. In December 1777, she gave birth to the first of her ten children, future Tsar Alexander I. Sophia Dorothea was born in 1759 in Stettin, Pomerania, the daughter of Frederick II Eugene, duke of Wurttemberg, and Sophia Dorothea of Brandenburg . As dowager empress and matriarch of Russia, Sophia bombarded her son with reprimands and advice and insisted that he pay homage to her at Pavlovsk on a weekly basis. Tired of being excluded in political affairs, Paul and Maria asked Catherine II for permission to travel abroad to Western Europe. On their way back to St. Petersburg, Maria went to Württemberg to visit her parents. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. R. C. Elwood , Professor of History, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. She She used her position to help as much as possible her numerous poor relations, some of whom were invited to Russia. She transferred the younger inhabitants to new, independent orphanages. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. [16] When the French Emperor offered to marry her youngest daughter Anna Pavlovna, Maria strongly opposed the proposed marriage.[17]. Sophia Dorothea of Wurttemberg played a more important political role in the first quarter of the 19th century than she had in the last 25 years of the 18th. continued to beautify Pavlovsk, dedicated herself to charitable work among its inhabitants, planned theatrical events for her husband, who delighted in that amusement, and particaped in musical evenings for family and friends in which she adeptly played the harpsichord. After her husband ascended to the Russian throne in 1796, Maria Feodorovna had a considerable and benefitial influence over his four-year government. During the first half of their marriage, Sophia "became the single most important person in [Paul's] adult life," according to Roderick McGrew. Like his father, Peter III (1728–1762),…, ALEXANDER I Oxford: Clarendon, 1992. By the age of 16, she was well-versed in mathematics and architecture, as well as fluent in German, French, Italian and Latin. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. When her mother lamented the unfortunate destiny of some Russian sovereigns, a pleased Sophia Dorothea replied that her only concern was to make her way in her new country quickly and successfully. In 1773, Sophie Dorothea was among the group of German princesses considered as possible wives of the heir to the Russian throne, the future Tsar Paul I. Burch, Susan, "Transcending Revolutions: The Tsars, the Soviets and Deaf Culture" p. 394. She became the center for much of the conservative opposition to Alexander's early liberal reforms, and she worked to undermine reforming ministers such as Michael Speransky, especially if she considered them to be pro-French. In the long run, her most lasting influence was through one of her younger sons. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Sophia, who knew nothing of the plot and briefly tried to succeed her husband, became the dowager empress when her eldest son ascended to the throne as Alexander I. Daughter of Duke Frederick Eugene of Württemberg and Princess Friederike of Brandenburg-Schwedt, Sophie Dorothea belonged to a junior branch of the House of Württemberg and grew up in Montbéliard receiving an excellent education for her time. For some time afterward, whenever her son came to visit, the Dowager Empress would place a casket between them containing the bloodstained nightshirt that his father was wearing on the day of the murder as a silent reproach. Even so, it is possible that she abused it in order to help her friends or hurt her enemies. In 1798, it was suggested to Paul that his often pregnant wife should avoid the possibility of further children and that she and her friends were getting much of the credit for domestic change while he was not receiving the public respect he deserved. Of a robust constitution, she outlived five of her ten children, including her eldest son and his wife and seeing the ascension to the throne of her third son, Nicholas I. "[3], By early fall, Sophia fell in love with her future husband. In 1796, Catherine finally died, and Paul, to the surprise of some, took over as tsar of Russia.

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