Complete combustion of natural gas or propane produces carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapour (H2O) and heat. Poor mixing of gas and air resulting from the incorrect adjustment of, or plugged or restricted, primary air shutters. Reduction of heat transfer on the combustion side can also produce the same complaints, but with the addition of a significant hazard. A colourless, odourless, very toxic gas (CO) that is formed as a product of the incomplete combustion of carbon or a carbon compound. If an occupant complains of a “gas smell”, it also needs to be determined if the odour is, in fact, related to unburned natural gas, combustion products, or an unrelated source.

Code Rule 4.21 of the CSA B149.1 Gas code lists requirements that must be followed if a heat exchanger is found to be defective.

Placing pots or griddle plates on stove top burners will produce a maximum amount of CO while the pot and contents heat up. Some of the major variables that affect the amount of carbon monoxide absorbed into the body are: When a gas fitter is commissioning an appliance, the process should include a discussion with the occupants regarding what is to be expected once the appliance is operational. Condensing furnaces will use a device that looks similar to a car radiator for the secondary heat exchanger. Designations. Orange flecks appearing above a sharp blue flame should not be mistaken for incomplete combustion; typically, these are the result of dust particles being consumed by the flame. cycle to its off position when the temperature of the air in the plenum exceeds the limit set by the technician. Elevated flue gas temperatures result from a reduction in heat transfer between the products of combustion and the heated medium (air or water). The primary heat exchanger in a furnace can be made from rolled steel of two mirror image parts seamed together like a clam shell or use tubing. of Parallelograms and Triangles, Introduction Have you witnessed an incident or hazard that involves regulated work or a regulated product? Carbon monoxide is inhaled and absorbed from the lungs into the bloodstream. Typically, a utility technician or fire personnel will be the first on-scene, and will deal with the immediate life-safety issues. Insert the analyser’s probe as far as possible into the outlet and sample the gases for an additional five minutes, or until a stable reading is recorded. Carbon monoxide: CO (g)-113.802 ... Heats of Formation of Core Combustion Species. If a gas fitter discovers an appliance with a significantly obstructed heat exchanger, additional investigation is required to determine the root cause(s) leading to plugging. A standard S636 tee can also be used, with the use of a bushing with a ½” FIP tapping. At higher concentrations, the mixture is too “rich” to burn. Slightly lighter than air (Sg 0.975). About 21 per cent of air is oxygen. Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH). Incomplete combustion creates poisonous carbon monoxide. More information here.

Or heat distortion temperature (HDT, HDTUL, or DTUL) is the temperature at which a polymer or plastic sample deforms under a specified load. For compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (as many organic compounds do), a general combustion reaction equation will be: C a H b O c + (a + ¼b - ½c) O 2 → aCO 2 (g) + ½bH 2 O (l) + heat of combustion. Excessive CO in a sealed-combustion appliance usually points to problems with the combustion system which can reduce efficiency and/or heating capacity, significantly shorten the life of the appliance, and damage components or the venting system. colleges and universities in the state. Common options are Oxygen, CO, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Combustible Gas (Lower Explosive Limit).

Gas sampling tubes and pumps (either manual or automatic) are also an option. Cannot be detected by sense of smell, However, CO can also be accompanied by aldehydes. If so, has it been adjusted to maintain an acceptable temperature rise through the boiler? Incomplete combustion occurs when the supply of air or oxygen is poor. Combustion-side restrictions lead to a cascading effect which can result in a significant amount of CO being produced by the appliance. Care must be taken to ensure adequate excess air is available for the combustion process. Depending on the local building authority, the air may have to be tempered through the use of a duct heater or fan-coil. Refer to previous sections of this manual for information regarding building depressurization and venting issues. The salt deposits re-combine with moisture from the air to continue the corrosive process and rapidly ruin a heat exchanger. Individuals holding these designations have been certified in the design and commissioning of residential ventilation systems, and can provide analysis and advice on the effects of depressurization on a structure. Altitude – The higher the altitude, the greater the effect of carbon monoxide poisoning.

A correction Author: Rossini, F.D. The slow burning particles become semi-solid and because of their higher temperature, produce an incandescent light.

Factors Affecting Carbon Monoxide Absorption, Investigating Ambient Carbon Monoxide Causes, Technical Safety BC Directive “D-G5 070628 5 Revision: 05 Plastic Venting”, CARBON MONOXIDE LEVELS – AMBIENT AND FLUE GAS, The benefits of the B44-16 elevating safety code, B44-16 code requirements for daily start-up checks and barricading. If Category I appliances are common vented and one appliance is removed at a later date, such as the replacement of a mid-efficient furnace to a high efficiency furnace, the existing venting must be verified to be adequate for the remaining appliance(s). They are also not a substitute for smoke alarms, although some manufacturers are now producing models which combine both functions in a single unit. Local emergency services may be required to assess the need for evacuation.

If an ambient CO level is measured at more than 100 PPM, the gas fitter must leave the area and notify any affected occupants while leaving the building. When a fuel burns in plenty of air, it receives enough oxygen for complete combustion. Observe the oxygen level. Severe headache; nausea and vomiting; confusion and collapse. Complete combustion needs a plentiful supply of air so that the elements in the fuel react fully with oxygen. Barbecues (natural gas, propane, and charcoal). A visible yellow flame caused by a delay of carbon molecules finding oxygen and forming carbon dioxide. The striking of a burner flame against an object, such as flame impingement on the heat exchanger. Regardless of which system is used, the gas fitter must follow all of the instructions provided by the manufacturer regarding storage, calibration, training, maintenance, and repair. They form soot when deposited on a solid surface.

Category III appliances are usually vented with stainless steel venting materials.

If a gas range is suspected of producing ambient CO levels in excess of 10 ppm, further investigation is needed. Shortness of breath on exertion. Int. If so, is it func- tioning correctly? Carbon Monoxide will not cause irritation. The heat of formation of CO in KJ is :- 1:30 48.5k LIKES. A combustion analyzer may also be used to determine the air quality in the space.

Fuels such as natural gas and petrol contain hydrocarbons. Oven pans must be kept clear of foil as the foil may obstruct secondary air openings to the burner and cause excess CO to be produced. Fuels are substances that react with oxygen to release useful energy. Lazy, yellow, luminous flames indicate a problem with burner operation. The internal temperature of the furnace may exceed the continuous operating design temperature without reaching the high limit setting.


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